Chapter 3: Coal Combustion Products and the Environment


Colin Ward, UNSW
James Ness, Griffith University
Peter Heeley, Heeley's Consulting
Ken Riley, Retired (Formerly CSIRO Division of Energy Technology)


As reported by Heidrich et al. (2013) in a review of country classification systems, ash from coal-fired stations is not regarded as a “hazardous” waste. CCPs are generally reported as falling into the classification of non-hazardous, solid or inert wastes, and are used widely in construction applications. Nevertheless coal ash is identified as a waste. However, descriptors other than “waste”, such as “coal combustion products” (CCPs), or in some cases “coal combustion by-products” (CCBs), are used by industry bodies.


  1. 3.1 Overview
    1. 3.1.1 Toxicity and exposure pathways
    2. 3.1.2 Chemical characteristics of fly ash
    3. 3.1.3 Ash repository management
  2. 3.2 Element Mobility Associated with Coal Ash
    1. 3.2.1 Leaching tests for coal combustion products
    2. 3.2.2 Chemistry of ash–water systems
    3. 3.2.3 Comparison of leaching test procedures
    4. 3.2.4 Other evaluations
    5. 3.2.5 Mobility of major and trace elements in Australian fly ashes
    6. 3.2.6 Changes in element mobility with ash storage
    7. 3.2.7 Integration of laboratory and field studies
    8. 3.2.8 Leaching of Victorian brown coal ashes
    9. 3.2.9 Ash from coal co-fired with biomass
  3. 3.3 PAHs and Dioxins in CCPs
    1. 3.3.1 PAHs
    2. 3.3.2 Dioxins
  4. 3.4 Radioactivity
    1. 3.4.1 Radioactive trace elements in coal
    2. 3.4.2 Radioactivity of coal ash
    3. 3.4.3 Radioactivity of building materials
    4. 3.4.4 Health impacts of coal ash radioactivity
  5. 3.5 Health and Safety Requirements
    1. 3.5.1 Health and safety issues
  6. 3.6 References
  7. Appendix: Material Safety Data Sheet for a Power Station Fly Ash

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