Coal Combustion Product Utilisation

Coal combustion products produced from coal-fired power stations represent useful mineral sources of raw materials for a range of applications and products. Annually the Ash Development Association of Australia (ADAA) collects the production, sales and and utilisation statistics for coal combustion products (CCPs) and publsihes an Annual Production and Utilisation Survey Report.


Annually members and non-members are invited to complete a survey for CCPs produced, sold and stored for the nominated reporting period. Information provided by members and non-members is collated, compared with other data sources, for verification purposes, and aggregated into national data set. No disaggrated (e.g State) data is published. The importation and exporting of CCPs are included using HS tarrif code data from ABS, however sources (regions) and destinations (locations) are not identified.

For members the information provides our industry with a map of production trends with a focus on where 'effective utilisation’ of CCPs is occurring.  

Some important terms

'Effective utilisation' is the sale or utilisation of CCPs as recoverable mineral resources into a value added construction application that provides both commercial returns [revenue] return on investment or an economic return [avoided expense], and use is consistent with the criteria of ecologically sustainable development (EDS) principles.

The utilisation of CCPs in a variety of both high and low value add products helps to conserve natural resources such as sands and gravels. This reduces the environmental impact that would otherwise be caused by mining these natural resources. In addition, the need to construct additional storage facilities at the power stations can be deferred or even eliminated.

Annual Production and Utilisation Survey Report: 2021 - Summary

The beneficial use of coal combustion products (CCPs) during 2021 resulted in 5.848 million tonnes or 46% being beneficially used, resulting in the conservation of; energy; finite natural resources, the reduction of carbon emissions through the recovery of CCPs being mineral by-product resources.

The survey results for CCPs production and end uses for the period January to December 2021 discussed in this report are shown in Table 1. Over the survey period more than 83 million tonnes of thermal coal was consumed to generate vital energy to support the Australian economy.  Some 11.4 million tonnes of all CCPs were produced with 46% being effectively utilised  within various civil and construction applications throughout Australia. 

Total CCPs produced increased slightly over the reporting period by 0.5 million tonnes, but the longer-term trend has continued to decrease. This decline is consistent with ongoing closures of coal fire power stations and reduced demand for thermal coal as an energy source, coupled with ongoing energy reforms, renewable energy targets (RET) and state government privatisation agenda for electricity over the past several years. 

To download the report click on the cover or link. Previously published reports are replaced with the current period.  Past reports are avaliable on request, but note the current report also includes a 5 year summary.  

For further technical literature on CCPs visit our free online library.