Chapter 1: Production and Handling of Coal Combustion Products


Craig Heidrich, Ash Development Association of Australia
Colin Ward, UNSW
Des Chalmers, Cement Australia
Peter Heeley, Heeley's Consulting
James Ness, Griffith University
Robert Williams, Alinta Energy


The combustion of pulverised coal in the furnace of a power station boiler results in the production of a number of solid residues traditionally regarded as wastes but more accurately classified as coal combustion products (CCPs). Globally, various terms to describe CCPs have arisen over time. Coal ash, pulverised fuel ash (PFA), coal utilisation by-products (CUBs), coal combustion by-products (CCBs) and coal combustion residuals (CCRs). The World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network (WWCCPN) has adopted a harmonised terminology that promotes consistent nomenclature. The term CCPs provides a more positive perspective and is in keeping with the concept of industrial ecology, an approach which seeks to use one industry’s by-product or waste as another industry’s raw material..


  1. 1.1 Introduction
    1. 1.1.1 Formation of fly ash
    2. 1.1.2 Properties of fly ash
      • Physical properties
      • Chemical properties
      • Mineralogy
    3. 1.1.3 Classification of fly ashes
    4. 1.1.4 Fly ash production and stock
    5. 1.1.5 Ash utilisation industry
  2. 1.2 Australian Coal-fired Power Generation, Ash Storage and Utilisation
  3. 1.3 Processing of CCPs
    1. 1.3.1 Fly ash capture
      • Electrostatic precipitators
      • Fabric filters
    2. 1.3.2 Cenospheres
    3. 1.3.3 Uses of fly ash
      • Cement and concrete products
      • Structural fills, road bases and highway embankments
      • Flowable fill
      • Waste stabilisation
      • Agriculture and horticulture
      • Manufactured products
      • Other applications
    4. 1.3.4 Furnace bottom ash
  4. 1.4 Conditioned CCPs
    1. 1.4.1 Ponded CCPs
    2. 1.4.2 Stockpiled CCPs
    3. 1.4.3 Longer-term stockpiled CCPs
  5. 1.5 References

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