Chapter 5: Using Coal Combustion Products in Concrete


Des Chalmers, Cement Australia
Daksh Baweja, University of Technology Sydney
Peter Heeley, Heeley's Consulting
Robert Williams, Alinta Energy


The earliest recorded use of fly ash to enhance the properties of concrete occurred in the 1930s by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company based in the USA (Abdun-Nur 1961). The first recorded use of fly ash in a construction application in Australia dates back to 1949 in grout for “Prepact” shaft linings at the Tumut Number 1 Power Station of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme in New South Wales, where fly ash from Chicago, Illinois, USA was used (Samarin et al. 1983). Additionally, the first report published on the research using Australian fly ash in concrete occurred in 1950 with the East Perth Power Station, in Western Australia (Munt & Munro 1950). From these beginnings, the use of fly ash in concrete became much more common and widespread. A major proportion of the concrete produced throughout Australia contains fly ash as a partial cement replacement.


  1. 5.1 Background and History
  2. 5.2 Australian Standards for Fly Ash in Concrete
    1. 5.2.1 Historical developments
    2. 5.2.2 Fly ash grade
    3. 5.2.3 Fly ash fineness
    4. 5.2.4 Loss on ignition
    5. 5.2.5 Moisture content
    6. 5.2.6 SO3 content
    7. 5.2.7 Other reportable properties
    8. 5.2.8 Other parameters
    9. 5.2.9 Summary
  3. 5.3 Use of fly ash in concrete
    1. 5.3.1 Background
    2. 5.3.2 The role of fly ash as a cement replacement material
    3. 5.3.3 Fly ash and sustainability
    4. 5.3.4 Ternary blends
    5. 5.3.5 Fly ash in mass concrete and roller compacted concrete
    6. 5.3.6 Fly ash concrete durability
    7. 5.3.7 Use of fly ash in blended cement
  4. 5.4 Case Studies of CCP Use in Concrete
  5. 5.5 Summary
  6. 5.6 References

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