Chapter 8: Coal Combustion Products in Concrete Masonry and Related Products


Ron McLaren, McLaren and Associates
Obada Kayali, UNSW
Colin Ward, UNSW
Peter Heeley, Heeley's Consulting
Stefan Bernard, Engineered Material Solutions


With the utilisation of fly ash as standard practice in concrete production, it is obvious that CCPs may also be used for making concrete blocks and other masonry products. As well as the universally acknowledged environmental benefits of fly ash usage, utilisation in the masonry industry is less restrictive on the maximum fly ash content than in Portland cement concrete. It is an established fact that Portland cement production is the major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions in the building industry. Therefore, using concrete blocks where practical presents an attractive alternative to traditional reinforced concrete. Moreover, the strength requirements and production methods for concrete blocks may allow inclusion of bottom ash as the coarse and fine aggregate ingredients. Such a development is beneficial to the environment in that (a) it spares the quarrying for natural aggregates and (b) it provides a beneficial use for bottom ash materials, which otherwise would need to be stockpiled. Such a practice would also have economic benefits, as bottom ash is cheaper than natural aggregates.


  1. 8.1 Introduction
  2. 8.2 Use of CCPs in Concrete Masonry Products
    1. 8.2.1 Concrete blocks
    2. 8.2.2 CCP use in Australian masonry block production
    3. 8.2.3 Some overseas ash-based block products
    4. 8.2.4 Bricks
    5. 8.2.5 Pavers
    6. 8.2.6 Ceramic tiles
  3. 8.3 Future Opportunities
  4. 8.4 References

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