Chapter 4: Review of Australian Market, Legislation and Regulations


Craig Heidrich, Ash Development Association of Australia
Peter Heeley, Heeley's Consulting


  • Some 5.4 Mt or 42% of CCPs produced have been effectively utilised in various value-added products or to some beneficial end over the period. On a per capita basis, this equates to about 250 kg/person recycled or reused.
  • Approximately 1.9 Mt or 79% of effectively utilised coal ash was used in high value-added applications such as cementitious binders, concrete manufacture or mineral fillers.
  • About 0.52 Mt or 22% of effectively utilised coal ash was used in non-cementitious applications such as flowable fills, structural fills, road bases, coarse/fine aggregates and mine site remediation.
  • Some 2.34 Mt or 18% was used in projects offering some beneficial use (e.g. onsite remediation, local haul roads etc.). These uses typically generate no economic return, that is, cost avoidance or recovery only.
  • Surplus CCPs of 9.8 Mt are typically placed into onsite storage ponds awaiting some future opportunity for economic reuse.
  • More than 35 Mt of CCPs [fly ash] have been used in cementitious applications or concrete manufacture from 1975 to 2012 [37 years].

Whilst effective utilisation continues to grow, still more than 9 Mt being placed into storage dams or other on-site or nearby facilities, with potential for additional use. It is estimated more than 400 million tonnes of CCPs have been stored in homogeneous ash dams located across Australia. Given the appropriate opportunities these stored materials could be further exploited or mined.


  1. 4.1 The Ash Utilisation Market
    1. 4.1.1 Transport of ash products
    2. 4.1.2 The economics of ash production
    3. 4.1.3 The economics of ash utilisation
    4. 4.1.4 Interconnections between different players in the industry
    5. 4.1.5 Current and potential legislative and other impacts
    6. 4.1.6 International experience
  2. 4.2 Summary of Relevant Legislation
    1. 4.2.1 Definitions
    2. 4.2.2 Commonwealth of Australia – legislation
    3. 4.2.3 New South Wales – legislation
    4. 4.2.4 Victoria – legislation
    5. 4.2.5 South Australia – legislation
    6. 4.2.6 Western Australia – legislation
    7. 4.2.7 Queensland – legislation
    8. 4.2.8 Tasmania – legislation
    9. 4.2.9 ACT and Northern Territory – legislation
    10. 4.2.10 Overseas policies
      • United States of America
      • United Kingdom
    11. 4.2.11 Summary of findings
    12. 4.2.12 Context
  3. 4.3 References
  4. Appendix: US EPA environmental fact sheet

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