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3D Printing is the process of making a three-dimensional object from a digital model. The process involves adding successive layers of material on top of one another using a computer system to create a physical product. Recently 3D printers were created in sizes so that they could print commercial projects such as homes and buildings at a fraction of the time and cost using materials such as fly ash to reduce total emissions by up to 80. The most recent building that has been created is WinSuns five story apartment in Suzhou China. Each floor took only one day to complete. The company has also produced ten houses in 24 hours. The companys recent success has landed them a contract with the Egyptian Government for 20000 homes to be printed in the near future. The ADAA will continue to update readers on the newest developments of 3D printers using fly ash in coming editions on Coal Ash Matters. For more information about 3D printers please visit httpgoo.gl1fQL2S 3D printers for Concrete 06 ADAA APRIL 2015 How is it that concrete structures such as the Colosseum have lasted thousands of years yet a modern building is looked at skeptically after no more than 50 years A group of researchers has possibly answered the question. Using an X-Ray Generator to scan the layers of the 2000 year old concrete the team discovered that a crystalline binding hydrate caused by the combination of Roman volcanic ash lime and mortar impedes the ability of the concrete to fracture or crack. Mary Jackson the scientist who led the study said that The mortar resists microcracking through in situ crystallization of platy stratlingite a durable calcium-alumino-silicate mineral that reinforces interfacial zones and the cementitious matrix. These results suggest that the smooth surfaces of the crystal structures created from the volcanic blend are the key to the longevity and endurance of the ancient concrete structures. Jackson believes that the future challenge for other scientists and researchers will be to find ways to activate aggregates such as fly ash in concretes to create similar stratlingite reinforcements. To read more visit httpgoo.glXhMeLo Sooner or later everything old is new again. 7th IEA CCC Concrete Sustainability Conference on Clean Concrete Technologies CONFERENCE The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association is hosting the 7th International Concrete Sustainability Conference on Clean Concrete Technologies in May this year from the 11th-13th at the Intercontinental Miami Hotel. The Conference invites engineers researchers contractors industry professionals and all those interested to network with one another and share research. The deadline for early registration is April 20th 2015 so be sure to mark your calendars. Session topics for the Conference are as follows Resilience Strengthening the social and economic community through planning and design. Life Cycle Assessment Assessing the environmental impacts for buildings concrete manufacture and infrastructure. Low Impact Development Methods such as erosion control structures and pervious pavements. Material Science Designing extended service life models and innovations in durability. Corporate Responsibility Green initiatives used by businesses manufacturers designers and building owners as well as incentives and legislation. During the Conference a Women in Concrete Alliance Forum will also be held. The forum will feature of panel of guest speakers discussing the role of women in the concrete industry. For more information about the Conference or to register please visit httpwww.concretesustainabilityconference.orgmiami2015index.html