Chapter 13: Charactisation, Impact and Use of Products from Other Technologies


Ken Riley, Formerly CSIRO Division of Technology
David French, CSIRO Division of Technology
Colin Ward, UNSW
Leanne Stephenson, UNSW
Lila Gurba, UNSW


Australia currently produces approximately 14 million tonnes per annum of combustion products from its pulverised fuel (pf) coal-fired power stations (see Chapter 1). Some of this material is utilised in different ways, and the remainder is stored in wet ash dams or dry repositories. Projections by Morrison et al. (2005) have suggested that one outcome of a change in the mix of electricity generating plant in Australia may be a halving in the availability of fly ash by 2050, as a consequence of constraints on CO2 emissions and the associated adoption of transitional power generation technologies.

This chapter is based primarily on Research Report 89 (Riley et al. 2008), published by the Co-operative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD). It summarises the alternative technologies under consideration that may be introduced in the transition towards low-carbon power generating systems, especially the differences between the combustion products produced by transitional power generation technologies and the fly ash (and bottom ash) produced by conventional pulverised fuel power stations. Any differences between these materials may suggest advantages associated with beneficial use or environmentally acceptable storage of the products from some of these technologies compared to products derived from conventional pulverised fuel combustion, or alternatively that the products from transitional generation technologies may have properties that would impact adversely on the options for their disposal or use.

The three transitional technologies for electricity generation from coal that have been considered in this chapter are:

  • fluidised bed combustion (FBC)
  • oxy-fuel combustion
  • integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) using slagging gasifiers.


  1. 13.1 Transitional Coal Utilisation Technologies
    1. 13.1.1 Fluidised bed combustion (FBC)
    2. 13.1.2 Oxy-fuel combustion
    3. 13.1.3 Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) using slagging gasifiers
    4. 13.1.4 Solid combustion products from transitional technologies
  2. 13.2 Characteristics of Ash from Transitional Technologies
    1. 13.2.1 Fluidised bed combustion systems
    2. 13.2.2 Oxy-fuel combustion
    3. 13.2.3 Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems
  3. 13.3 Leaching Characteristics of Transitional Technology Ashes
    1. 13.3.1 Samples and experimental procedures
    2. 13.3.2 Characteristics of FBC ash samples
    3. 13.3.3 Characteristics of ashes from air-fired and oxy-fuel tests
    4. 13.3.4 Characteristics of IGCC ashes and slags
  4. 13.4 Discussion of Results
    1. 13.4.1 FBC ashes
    2. 13.4.2 Ashes from oxy-fuel systems
    3. 13.4.3 IGCC slags
  5. 13.5 Concluding Remarks
  6. 13.6 Acknowledgements
  7. 13.7 References

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